Golden Retriever Dog Forums banner

1 - 12 of 12 Posts

·
Registered
Joined
·
8,180 Posts
Discussion Starter #1
ROUNDWORMS:
Most all puppies (unless a really strict protocol is followed for generations) are born with round worms.
How they get there:
Adult worms mate in a host dog's intestines, after which the female worm produces thousands of eggs a day which are shed in the host dog's stool. Once shed, these eggs are undeveloped and are not immediately infective; depending on the temperature, they will become infective in 2 to 4 weeks, at which point they contain the infective third-stage larvae ((L3)).

After roundworm eggs are ingested by a suitable host, whether it is another dog or a human who accidentally ingests them via kid-play (kids have a propensity for eating dirt) or picking up sticks in the yard, the eggs will hatch and release L3 into the host’s intestine. After entering the intestine, the L3 penetrate the host intestinal wall and travel via the bloodstream to the liver and then to the lungs, where they will literally burst into the alveoli. ( when this occurs in large numbers, in puppies, the resulting condition is verminous pneumonitis) After entering the alveolus proper, L3 can take 2 paths: tracheal or somatic.

Tracheal migration: Larvae that ascend the trachea are swallowed and travel to the intestine, where they will mature to adults. (see above for what happens at that point)

Somatic migration: Larvae that reenter the alveolar blood vessels travel to the muscles or organs, where they become encysted and their development is arrested until they get the message to wake up. In humans, these migration pathways are also followed.

Puppies- how they get worms: either transplacental or transmammary route.
Transplacental route- after somatic migration (above) , worms become encysted in tissues and their development is arrested. When a bitch with encysted larvae becomes pregnant, these larvae become reactivated and travel via the umbilical vein to the in-utero puppies’ liver and lungs. At the time of birth, when the puppies’ lungs inflate, the larvae then burst out and travel to the intestines via tracheal migration, where they mature in 3 weeks. Hence, a 2.4.6.8 schedule of deworming is crucial. I saw a movie once of this method, dk how it was filmed but it showed an actual puppy's lungs @ whelp and the larvae @ first breath. Pretty impressive.
Transmammary route- encysted larvae can also infect puppies that drink the milk of their infected mother. Hence, deworming mom @ same time as puppies with appropriate dose of dewormer is crucial.
It is important to prevent worms inside our puppies from becoming adults so that they cannot make more eggs to release into the environment, and also to decrease the number of encysted worms in our dogs for later infestations of future litters. All the worms encysted in a bitch are not waken at the same time- same bitch will have enough supply to infest at least her lifetime's litters.

HOOKWORMS:

Adult worms mate in a host dog's intestines, after which the female worm produces hundreds of eggs a day which are shed in the host dog's stool. Like roundworms, once shed, these eggs are undeveloped and are not immediately infective; they contain a solid ball of cells resulting from division of a fertilized ovum (morula) and within 48 hours that morula has developed to a first-stage larvae ((L1)) and hatched. During the next week or so, ((L1)) has molted and will become an ((L3)) infectious larvae which can be ingested or enter the body through the skin.

Infection via ingestion: After L3 hookworms are ingested, they cross the stomach to the small intestine, where they enter the glands in the intestinal wall. After a few days, they leave the glands and develop into adults. From the time of infection to the demonstration of the parasite in the body is approximately 2 to 4 weeks.

Infection via skin penetration: After L3 hookworms penetrate the skin, they migrate via blood to the lungs, where they access the trachea and are swallowed. Similar to those that gained entry through oral infection, these L3 then end up in the intestine. L3 can also undergo somatic migration, in which larvae reenter the alveolar blood vessels and travel to the muscles or organs, where they become encysted and their development is arrested. The arrested larvae may become reactivated under 1 of 2 conditions: larval leak or transmammary transmission to puppies.
1. Larval leak scenario: this is when we treat for adults, kill adults, and still see eggs in the stool. How this occurs is rather miraculous. When all the adults are killed, the somatically stored larvae from muscle and intestinal wall migrate to the lumen of the intestine and start their own little party. Larval leak leads to refractory egg shedding and frustration that the dog isn't responding to deworming.
2. Transmammary scenario: this is a very common route when the bitch has an active hook infection.

Don't confuse seeing the gross roundworms as the most dangerous worm- hooks will kill a puppy uberfast and causes dramatic anemia in neonates and because the neonate's worm load isn't patent, no eggs show up on stool floats. An older puppy will have a positive float because his worms are able to reproduce.

WHIPWORMS
Difficult to diagnose unless you actually see these stinkers. Their eggs are much heavier than round/hook eggs so do not float and usually if a dog is over the age anemia is present and worms 'should' be reproducing, anemia is the major way to diagnose whipworms. Clinical signs are bloody large bowel diarrhea and mucousy diarrhea. Weightloss and Addison's symptoms are often a whip infestation. It's 3 months for a prepatency period. So from infestation to presence of adults takes 3 whole months. Whips are very hard to catch and the deworming is a very long drawn out with multiple drugs because immature worms aren't killed by most of the dewormers we use.

In short- a puppy having worms is not at all unusual, nor is it a reaction on the care provided unless the infestation is major. Check puppies gums for anemia. Deworm appropriately. FREQUENTLY!



https://todaysveterinarypractice.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2019/08/TVP-2019-0910_Roundworms.png
 

·
Esquire Golden Retrievers
Joined
·
4,413 Posts
This is an excellent post. Thank you for taking the time to put it together. It should be a sticky somewhere. Many people could benefit from reading it.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
8,180 Posts
Discussion Starter #4
People get all upset that someone has suggested worms... it really bothers me that they are so egotistical they imagine a parasite that has survived eons is somehow their fault and they have been insulted lol.. dewormers have been available maybe 200 years and if we could get rid of them they'd not be on this earth. I once read a German study that said it takes mindful management for generations to not have puppies with a parasite load (I think it was maybe 5 gens). I've only ever seen one worm in my dogs offspring but I'm sure they were there in all of them though I have had well over 5 gens since I read that article... and my father being a pharmacist and mother a nurse, growing up in FL barefoot, you can bet we were all dewormed every spring and summer @ our house! My mother grew up in a poor preacher's house where, when her sister got hookworms and almost died as a child, her own mindset on deworming was forever settled. Deworm the kids! I find the worm life cycle facinating. The strategy is admirable. I just don't want to see it play out in my litters ! FWIW- I use pyrantel pamoate at 2 and 4 weeks and do mama too, also w PP. I use fenbendazole at 6 and 8 weeks, mama too. Then go back to PP for the rest of their dewormings.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
24 Posts
@Prism Goldens - What's the difference between doing Panacur (fenbendazole) and Pyrantel Pamoate and why change them with age? Also, how often and how long we should be doing this. Our 11 week old recently ended up with worms and had an awful bout of diarrhea. We were so surprised because he went from absolutely fine to pooping worms in a matter of hours. He was prescribed Panacur so I am curious.
 

·
Super Moderator
Joined
·
1,384 Posts
@Prism Goldens - What's the difference between doing Panacur (fenbendazole) and Pyrantel Pamoate and why change them with age?
Panacur is a different active ingredient - fenbendazole. It's recommended to rotate dewormers, as parasites are good at developing resistance if one drug is used.

I want to edit this with saying that I wasn't thinking about dogs as much as I was horses. I'm fairly confident that it would be similar but not confident enough to say so with certainty.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
8,180 Posts
Discussion Starter #7
Guts are guts and worms are worms lol!
I've been hearing PP is not working as efficiently anymore but it is such an old drug, that's not surprising.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
8,180 Posts
Discussion Starter #9
Me? Yes- my HW preventative has deworming action too- but as far as special dewormings (outside of when mama is dewormed along w puppies at 2,4,6,and not usually 8 for mama) , I do twice a year. Unless someone catches and eats a squirrel and then they get a big guns dewormer.
 

·
Registered
Joined
·
8,180 Posts
Discussion Starter #11
Most vet supplies carry dewormer- the Columbia Labs pyrantel pamoate is available thru Revival and Valley Vet. It's 50mg/ml. There are some puppy dewormers available thru stores like TSC but for an adult it'd be too expensive and voluminous to use. It's 4.54 mg/ml. Dosage for 50 mg/ml is 1 ml for 10# body weight and it can be added to a meal. Most all HW contain a low dose of pyrantel- Heartgard comes to mind. I use ivermectin. The 'big guns' squirrel remedy (and this happens with startling regularity here, since my XD neighbor is a squirrel rehabber..) is prescription and I just keep it on hand for when I see the Jethro Bodine meal being divided....
 
1 - 12 of 12 Posts
Top