As a side note, I have heard of and seen missing teeth in Goldens. I have never personally heard of a Golden needing surgery for impacted teeth. It certainly could happen which is why you are getting the recommendation to check but based on my experience in the breed, missing is the likely cause and has no quality of life impact.
^^^ I actually heard of problems stemming from impacted teeth. From other golden people + very BADDDDDD case with a NSDTR who had what originally had been a "missing tooth" but it was there in the jaw and by the time he was almost 3 years old, it became very infected.
What might have been anywhere between $500-1000 for an extraction ended up being $3000+ for surgery and long term treatment for a dog who had major league infection in the jaw and beginning to spread.
In this dog's case, it was one of the big molars in back that was missing.
With the OP's dog's premolars missing on either side, it's a foregone conclusion that they are likely missing and this is a hereditary type issue because those teeth are commonly missing. However because of the above, it's always a good idea to get xrays done to verify.
My vet does check teeth for people when their dogs are brought in to be neutered/spayed. They charge maybe $80 or so for the xrays, but nothing too crazy.
If you are not going to alter the dog for a couple years and are worried - it would probably cost about $200 to get the xrays done at your regular vet. This is because the dogs need to be sedated.
Personally speaking - if I were in the OP's shoes, I'd just go to the regular vet. It is unlikely to be a more complicated situation than just xrays and confirming what's going on.
If there is an extraction surgery required... that is what it is. The sooner you get the tooth out, the less you have to worry later. It costs money, but that's vet care and responsible dog ownership. It all costs money.
Asking the breeder to pay for something like this is not appropriate.
ETA - my youngest little guy (dog on the left in my sig) had a couple crunched up teeth because of an injury (probably playing too rough with the big guys when he was little). Teeth came out, but only partly. They had damaged roots + fractures below the gum. He still will be shown, unknown how successful depending on tooth fairies (but eh - I have paperwork showing he had full dentition).
Prior to the teeth coming out - I had been in communication already with the specialist because they were very slow growing. He said he sees impacted teeth pretty regularly with goldens and other breeds, particularly for show dogs. Many cases there's a small window they have to do a procedure to help the teeth come out. Basically cutting into the gums so the teeth have easy sailing the rest of the way. If this isn't done, the teeth may never come out and according to the specialist, they become time bombs which can go off at any time.