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Hemangiosarcoma is a tumor of endothelial cells (cells that line blood vessels). The tumor is common in many different dog breeds, including Golden Retrievers. When the tumor affects the internal organs, common sites include the spleen and the right atrium (the smaller chamber of the right side of the heart). The tumor is not painful and the animals usually have no symptoms at all until the tumor ruptures. Since it is a vascular tumor, when the tumor ruptures, it tends to bleed excessively. If the tumor is on the spleen, the blood collects in the abdominal cavity (hemoabdomen). If the tumor is in the right atrium, the sac surrounding the heart (pericardial sac) fills with blood, preventing the heart from pumping normally.
Although without a necropsy (the veterinary version of an autopsy) you may not know for sure why your dog died, from what you have described, hemoabdomen secondary to hemangiosarcoma is possible. Other diseases of the spleen, including splenic hematomas can also cause hemoabdomen. As previously mentioned, usually there are no signs of a problem before the tumors rupture. Sometimes animals may have an episode of abdominal bleeding that is not fatal, in which case they may seem tired or depressed for a few days, but usually the first sign of a problem is sudden collapse of the affected dog.
I am very sorry for the loss of your Golden. I hope this information helps to put your mind at ease.